Selected Publications

Forthcoming Monograph: Ringheim 2021. Mercenaries in the Eastern Mediterranean. Brepols Publishers.

H. Ringheim 2020. ‘Hera and the Sea: Decoding Dedications at the Samian Heraion.’ Studia Hercynia 23 (1), 11-25.


The paper examines the Near Eastern and Greek dedications at the Sanctuary of Hera in Samos during the 8th to 6th centuries BC. Contextualising the types of dedications and their origins indicate the identity of the dedicators, and whether they were Samians, other Greeks or from the Near East. Much scholarship has been devoted to the Samian Heraion and this paper contributes to these discussions by tracing the socio-economic and political objectives of the dedicators and bringing different theories into a single narrative. The paper presents a selection of votive dedications and connects them to four comprehensive themes and functions: firstly as a political act between states; as a display of social power; the growing trade routes and role of sanctuary markets; and finally, the other modes of contact that emerged, such as mercenaries and pirates. Overall, the Samian Heraion played an essential role as a timely crossroads between the East and West, where the dedication practices shed light on the various groups of dedicators.

H. Ringheim 2019. ‘Mediterranean Influences on Ceramics from the Small-scale Settlement of Al-Qarah al-Hamra.’ Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections (23), 78-99.

This paper explores the ceramic repertoire of Al-Qārah al-Ḥamrā, a small settlement in the Fayyūm, on the north shore of Lake Qārūn, dating from the Hellenistic to Early Roman period. A selection of significant typologies of local wares is discussed and contributes to the picture of what activities occurred at the site. The paper further contributes to the understanding of the infiltration of Greek ceramic shapes and influences, the impact this had on a local community, and the transition to Early Roman wares. The ceramics also evince the trade connections between the Fayyūm, and the rest of Egypt and the Mediterranean, indicating the extent of exchange and communication outside the Fayyūm. Such analysis is particularly relevant considering the paucity of archaeological data from small-scale Fayyūm settlements. Comparisons with Karanis, Tebtunis, and other larger sites point to a similarly diverse repertoire of materials and further stress the interconnectedness of this region.

H. Ringheim 2019. ‘The Pharaoh’s Fighters: Early Mercenaries in Egypt.’ In A Stranger in the House – Crossroads III. Prague, Charles University. Eds. J. Mynarova, et al. 341-354.


This paper addresses one of the fundamental ways in which foreigners and Egyptiansinteracted during the third to second millennium: as foreign soldiers in the Egyptian army. Fre-quently it is suggested that these are mercenaries hired by the Egyptians; however, how accurateis this identification? When does a non-local fighter become a mercenary? To approach thesequestions, the paper examines specific examples from tomb inscriptions that document Nubianand Egyptian interactions and the circumstances that led to Nubians in the Egyptian military.The discussion then looks at the later Shardana contingent of the so-called Sea Peoples in the13thto 12thcenturies BC and the varying types of exchanges with the Egyptians, based on walliconography and texts. The process in which the Shardana infiltrate the Egyptian military sug-gests that in certain circumstances, they evince characteristics of mercenaries. The evidenceexemplifies the first instances when armies relied on foreign hires, a phenomenon that thenresonated throughout antiquity.

Forthcoming. Ringheim 2021. ‘Greek Mercenaries: An Archaeological Perspective.’ In A Companion of Greek Mercenaries in the Classical Mediterranean and Hellenistic World, Warfare in the Ancient Mediterranean World Series. Edited by T. Fujii, D. Gómez-Castro, and M. Trundle. Brill.

Forthcoming. Ringheim 2021. ‘Attic Imports and Imitations at Kom Wasit and Kom al-Ahmer.’ In Kom Wasit and Kom al-Ahmer Excavations. Forthcoming Volume. Edited by M. Kenawi and G. Marchiori.